Nonetheless, they are often found, even if the traces that remain are often frustratingly vague. Take, for instance, Barbara Marshall, who appeared as a witness earlier than London Consistory Court in 1702. From this record, we know that Barbara was Scottish, 26 years old, and married to a mariner. We also know that she had been residing in St Johns, Wapping for a minimum of ten years – that is, since 1692 on the newest. But beyond this barebones outline, we can glean nothing further about Barbara.
There were other women, similar to Mary Stewart, wife of James’s favorite Sir Roger Aston, for whom the relocation of the court necessitated settlement in London, but extra normally, elite women were drawn to the capital by way of marriage. Take, as an example, Anne Scott, daughter of Francis, 2nd earl of Buccleuch.
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None of those questions may be answered, and they exemplify the frustrations involved in making an attempt to reconstruct the experiences of Scottish women in early fashionable England. Dr Allan Kennedy explores what life was like for the Scottish women who made their properties in London through the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
The size of Anne Hayes’ working life most likely made her unusual amongst domestic servants, however nevertheless she demonstrates how this could possibly be one of the dependable methods for migrant women to support themselves as soon as they arrived in London. One of probably the most intriguing examples of a Scotswoman in a trade was Isabella Inglish. She was an apothecary who relocated from Edinburgh to London some time around 1700, and who manufactured a chilly medicine scottish women generally known as ‘The Famous Scotch Pills’. From her store in The Strand, Inglish offered her tablets in small bins sealed with black wax and stamped with a Lion Rampant, continuing in enterprise until no less than 1715. Inglish is understood only via newspaper advertisements for her medicine – perhaps she was not even a real individual, merely a advertising construct.
She moved to London around 1688, at which point she will need to have been at least in her mid-teenagers, as a result of she soon got married to a Dutchman named William. She seems to have spent many of the next three a long time circulating between a succession of masters as a yearly hired servant.
But actual or fictional, she is emblematic of the area obtainable in early fashionable England, or no less than London, for Scottish women to carve out unbiased economic identities. But if Scottish women may definitely be found in early trendy London, what was their typical profile? Opportunities for migration and settlement had been maybe greatest for elite women. None, of course, were extra elite than Dunfermline-born Princess Elizabeth, the later ‘Winter Queen’ of Bohemia, who adopted her father, James VI, to London after he inherited the English throne in 1603.
In 1717, however, she was employed by James Scott in Vine Street as a live-in servant. She remained with him for ten years, till she was a minimum of in her mid-50s, incomes an annual wage of 50 shillings, plus food and lodging.
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Born in Dundee in 1651, she made the move to London in 1661 to be able to marry Charles II’s illegitimate son, James Scott, duke of Monmouth. Marriage ties like this rapidly ensured that some women of the Scottish aristocracy, notably among its extra Anglicised families, were in reality born in London. One early instance was the formidable Anne Hamilton, third duchess of Hamilton, who spent most of her life at Hamilton Palace, however entered the world on the Palace of Whitehall in 1632. In common phrases, Scottish women are far harder to trace within the sources than Scottish men. Often their identities are subsumed within these of the men around them, principally husbands and fathers, meaning that they become essentially invisible.
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She remained in London, first as spouse after which as widow, till across the 1720s, but seems never to have built an independent life, as an alternative melting within the households of her husband and, latterly, youngsters. Increasingly, nevertheless, the most common work for Scottish women relocating to London was domestic service.